The electricity pylon designs of the world - an overview

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Lid geworden op: 23 jul 2022 11:32
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The electricity pylon designs of the world - an overview

Bericht door Donaumast » 22 okt 2022 09:22

Generally, pylon designs are different in each country. I have noticed certain similarities and differences in how high voltage power lines have been built on different continents after looking through images on GSV and Wikimedia.
Actually, some pylon types appear on different countries, e.g. portal pylons may be found in the US as well as in scandinavia, but almost nover in Germany, while the Donaumast type is a rare thing in the americas. ... ity_pylons

The Anglo-Saxon pylons:
examples_pylons_us.JPG (1.91 MiB) 3545 keer bekeken
Pylon designs: In the past, three-level masts were built with relatively massive steel lattice masts and often two ground cables, placed on the upper traverse. Portal masts made of steel frames or wood. Today there are many monopolar tubular steel poles with insulated trusses even for high-voltage, which often run alongside roads. For high voltage mostly delta masts. While in the USA there is a relatively high variety of pylon designs, in the United Kingdom almost only barrel masts are built, which literally all look the same.
Medium voltage lines:Hardly any variety in design. Single level wooden pylons, rarely concrete pylons with a wooden traverse and pin insulators, which (except in UK) just run along the roads and may carry several systems of different ones in metropolitan areas. Anchor poles almost always guyed, suspension poles sometimes.
Insulators: Older lines have porcellain chain insulators, today mostly plastic insulators were used
Substations: Often as multi-level steel lattice constructions with pin insulators
Transformer stations: Either pole-mounted transformers or, especially in the US, mini-substations
Common voltage levels: 69, 132, 275, 500 kV
Countries: USA, Canada, England, Central America, Colombia, Caribbean, Greece, Philippines, Pacific States, Australia, New Zealand, former British colonies in Africa

The central-european pylons:
examples_europe.jpg (1.79 MiB) 3545 keer bekeken
Pylon designs: Many different pylon images. Each country has its own specific way of building power line towers, but certain commonalities can be identified. Relatively slender pylons with straight contours and a long ground wire tip or, rarely, ground wire horns or a ground wire traverse. Within Central Europe, the German masts are the most memorable. In West Germany mostly Donau pylons, in East Germany single-level towers, in other countries there are more barrel pylons and less often Donaupylons. Lines are usually laid in two circuits, single-circuit lines are rare and often laid on asymmetrical pylons. Delta pylons are rarely found.
Medium voltage lines: Medium voltage lines are laid across the field and almost never along the road. The design is extremely diverse and country-specific. Poles in triangle design are often found. Both standing and hanging insulators are common. The insulators are often attached directly to the mast on wooden masts, albeit in the form of a hook and not as an insulating traverse as in the USA. In addition to wooden masts, steel lattice or concrete poles, rarely tubular steel poles, are built. Suspension poles are almost never guyed, instead an A-construction or steel lattice mast is used. The poles rarely carry more than two systems.
Insulators: mostly rod insulators, which are combined into several sections at voltages higher than 110 kV. Double insulators are often used.
Substations: Designed as anchor portals made of simple tubular steel constructions, less often made of steel lattice constructions
Transformer stations: The transformer tower building is omnipresent, sometimes also pole-mounted transformers. Today, they are oftenseparatly connected by cable connection, as there is a trend towards laying underground cables.
Common voltage levels: 110, 220, 380/400 kV
Countries: Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, some Balkan countries, Sweden

French/Southern European pylons
examples_france.jpg (1.89 MiB) 3545 keer bekeken
Pylon designs: Especially in france is a high variety of pylon designs on relatively slender pylons, often three-level masts, variants of delta pylons (Chat) or Donau pylons (Beaubourg), portal towers (Trianon) and tubular steel masts. Triangle masts are often found for single-circuit lines of 63 kV. In Italy, Belgium and some of the former Yugoslavia, diversity is less than in France. Three-level masts or triangle masts with a simple ground wire tip are built there.
Medium voltage lines: In France and Portugal: reinforced concrete poles, in particular with the typical curved steel delta, but there are also other different types of construction. In Italy spun concrete poles in triangle design similar to those in South America.
Substations: Designed as anchor portals made of simple tubular steel constructions, less often made of steel lattice constructions. In france and italy, the last masts in front of the substations are designed as delta masts,
Transformer stations: Usually on the mast or separately via cable connection, sometimes transformer towers.
Insulators: chain insulators made of turquoise glass or plastic
Common voltage levels: 63/70, 150, 225, 400 kV
Countries: France and former french colonies in Africa, Italy, Portugal, Spain, partly Yugoslavia

Eastern block rust jungles:
examples_ostblock.jpg (2.44 MiB) 3545 keer bekeken
Pylon designs: Medium variety of designs. For suspension pylons up to 110 kV, the characteristic concrete barrel design (or asymmetrical masts when only one system) with simple steel trusses and iron top are used. Older masts also inverted Tannenbaumpylons made of steel lattice, which are reminiscent of older German types. Massive steel lattice towers are used as anchor pylons. Higher voltage lines are most often routed on portal pylons, which are constructed as either lattice poles or concrete towers. In industrial areas, veritable jungles of rusty high-voltage pylons can be found.
Medium voltage lines: Medium-voltage lines: squared concrete poles in a triangle design with standing insulators, in rural areas also wooden masts, which are attached to a concrete base. anchor poles sometimes are guyed or buttressed by a smaller concrete pole.
Substations: Mostly anchor portals with concrete poles and iron tops.
Transformer stations: Free-standing, fenced-in transformers, which are connected to the overhead line at the top.
Insulators: Usually Porcelain chain insulators
Common voltage levels: 60, 110, 220, 330, 500 kV, occasionally up to 750, 1150 kV
Countries: Former Soviet Union countries, Mongolia, partly Romania, Albania; North Korea?

South american concrete forests:
examples_argentine.jpg (1.08 MiB) 3545 keer bekeken
Pylon designs: Typical are spun concrete towers, in which the guy masts are combined with concrete rivets to double structures. Unlike the Eastern Bloc type, the trusses are also made of concrete. In Argentina in particular, high-voltage lines are laid almost entirely on concrete poles. Only the high-voltage network runs on delta masts or guyed masts or on three-level masts. In other latin america, three-level lattice towers are used. Overall, relatively little variety in the steel lattice towers. Recently, tubular steel masts of the Anglo-Saxon type have become increasingly widespread
Medium voltage lines: Very different depending on the country. Are often laid along the streets like the american type, but mostly designed as spun concrete poles. Chile, Colombia, Venezuela have medium-voltage poles of Anglo-Saxon design.
Substations: Usually mounted on concrete portals
Transformer stations: Are oftenmounted on special portal towers. Rarely transformer towers exist.
Insulators: different
Common voltage levels: ?
Countries: Argentina, Uruguay, Peru in particular; Bolivia, Paraguay, parts of Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil; Cuba?

East asia pylon stacks:
examples_asia.jpg (1.4 MiB) 3545 keer bekeken
Pylon designs: Multi-level masts with ground wire traverse are widespread. Typical is the stacking of traverses on a mast, resulting in huge towers with up to 12 levels. Mostly designed as a steel lattice tower, but also as a tubular steel pole.
Medium voltage lines, Substations, Transformer stations: Usually just like the Anglo-Saxon type, but "tangled cables" are very common on medium-voltage lines.
Insulators: Porcelain or plastic insulator strings
Countries: Japan, China, Taiwan, South Korea, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand

other countries:
In Scandinavia, portal masts are almost excessively constructed, either as wooden poles or on guyed steel lattice masts. Otherwise, the construction designs are quite different and sometimes exotic. In Sweden, the masts are similar to those in Germany. In Denmark, the relatively fragile barrel pylons catch the eye.
examples_scandinavia.jpg (1.36 MiB) 3545 keer bekeken
Netherlands: A similar variety as in Germany, so there are donau, barrel and single-level masts. However, the mast shafts are much more massive. Typical are the ground wires, which are usually attached to an extended top truss. Nowadays, there are also some newer overhead lines of American design. It is interesting that theres a 110/220 kV grid in the north and a 150 kV grid in the south. Medium voltage lines are probably completely underground.
examples_netherlands.jpg (690.23 KiB) 3545 keer bekeken
Switzerland: There are mainly barrel pylons, which resemble those in Great Britain. Smaller high-voltage lines run on concrete pylons. Medium-voltage lines run on wooden pylons, where the insulators are hooked directly to the pylon.
examples_schweiz.JPG (1.36 MiB) 3545 keer bekeken
Spain: Various designs similar to those in neighboring countries, mostly barrel pylons, sometime pylons. Medium voltage lines built on steel lattice towers with rectangular grid cells and turquise glass insulators.
examples_spain.jpg (1.14 MiB) 3545 keer bekeken
South Africa and Namibia: Tri-level and delta lattice towers similar to those in America. However, the frequent wooden portal masts have a typical k-frame design. Medium-voltage lines have a quite European look: on wooden poles with a steel triangle.
examples_southafrica.png (2.28 MiB) 3545 keer bekeken
Arab States: Apparently, solidly built three-level trees with a very long ground wire tip are quite common in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain
examples_arab.jpg (542.53 KiB) 3545 keer bekeken
Dubai: unlike in the neighboring countries, Donau pylons with an integrated traverse such as the French Beaubourg pylon.
example_dubai.JPG (462.34 KiB) 3545 keer bekeken
DR Congo: the few images on Wikimedia seem to show a high variety.
Power_lines_DR-Congo_-_Mapillary.png (842.67 KiB) 3545 keer bekeken
Turkey: Medium-voltage pylons often on single-level lattice pylons, in addition there are spun concrete pylons similar to those in Latin America. For high voltage barrel pylons, portals and delta pylons.
examples_turkia.jpg (957.91 KiB) 3545 keer bekeken
Israel: Very fragile three-level pylons are being built, to which the conductors are attached with chains of short rod insulators. A kind of Danube mast is used for the extra-high voltage level. Medium-voltage lines run on fragile steel lattice poles, either one-level for one system or three-level for 2 systems.
examples_israel_.jpg (462.45 KiB) 3545 keer bekeken
Iran: Reinforced concrete poles are used for medium voltage, otherwise delta and barrel poles.
examples_iran.JPG (701.91 KiB) 3545 keer bekeken
India: apparently barrel pylons, at higher voltages with ground wire horns, partly stacked as in East Asia. Medium-voltage lines run on concrete pylons with curved metal trusses.
examples_india.jpg (387.37 KiB) 3545 keer bekeken

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